The Nobel Prize for Medicine went to three scientists:
- Bruce Beutler of the Scripps Research Institute in California
- Jules Hoffmann, retired from the University of Strasbourg in France
- Ralph Steinman who worked at Rockefeller University in New York. Sadly, Dr. Steinman actually died several days before the award was announced.
- All three studied the immune system, the way in which humans and other organisms fight infection
The Nobel Prize for Physics was won by:
- Saul Perlmutter from the University of California, Berkeley
- Brian Schmidt of the Australian National University
- Adam Riess of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore
- They discovered that the universe keeps expanding faster and faster
The Nobel Prize for Chemistry went to:
- Daniel Schechtman from the Israel Institute of Technology
- He discovered quasicrystals, which are like atomic mosaic patterns, and have been used to make stronger kinds of steel
You can learn more about these scientists and their discoveries here.